Initially, Romans were only building temporary camps for their troops in the territory of the Roman Empire. This changed after the great expansion of Caesar and then Augustus before the turn of the millennium. Conquered territories and new boundaries had to be secured. Construction of permanent camps was concentrated along the new empire boundary on the Danube and Rhine. The inner development included barrack buildings, house for the commander and officers.

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Roman army
Camp in Neředín
Roman camps

Marcomannic Wars

Camps found north of the Danube are associated with the period of the Marcomannic Wars when warriors of local Suevi German and Sarmatian tribes (Marcomans, Quadi and Jazyges) were fighting troops of the Roman Empire. The Marcomannic Wars were fought in 166 – 180 AD on a large area of today's Austria, Hungary, Slovakia, Slovenia, northern Italy and Czech Republic (south and central Moravia).

At first, the Germans were repeatedly raiding Roman provinces on the middle Danube, defeating Roman troops and in 169 they penetrated into northern Italy where they besieged the town of Aquileiu. After initial defeats caused i.a. by the lack of soldiers in the attacked provinces and famine brought by soldiers from the east after winning the war with Parthia the Romans successfully resisted the German pressure and pushed the barbarians beyond the boundary. Romans defeated the Germans in two campaigns – "expeditio Germania prima" (First German War, 172 – 175 AD) and "expeditio Germania secunda" (Second German War, 177 – 180 AD).

Limited reports on the progress of the wars are available both from preserved works of the contemporary classical authors and from epigraphic monuments (e.g. Trenčín inscription, inscriptions on funerary stelae and memorials) and from works of art found in various parts of the Roman Empire (e.g. Column of Marcus Aurelius in Rome, sarcophagus from Portonaccio). Last but not least, there are mainly some archaeological sources documenting the physical presence of legionnaires in the territory of Great Germania (remains of camp fortifications, concentration of Roman military equipment, gear and coins).