Initially, Romans were only building temporary camps for their troops in the territory of the Roman Empire. This changed after the great expansion of Caesar and then Augustus before the turn of the millennium. Conquered territories and new boundaries had to be secured. Construction of permanent camps was concentrated along the new empire boundary on the Danube and Rhine. The inner development included barrack buildings, house for the commander and officers.

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Camp in Neředín
Roman camps
Roman military base Mušov

Roman buildings north of the Danube

Romans almost did not build any permanent camps (castrum), smaller fortifications and camps (castellum) or strongholds (arx) beyond the empire boundaries. An exception includes the Kelemantia citadel (today's Iža, Slovakia) built in the 70s of the 2nd century beyond the Danube empire boundaries, opposite the Brigetio legionary camp (I. Adiutrix legion). Another military point included Děvín in Slovakia, controlling the Morava river outlet to the Danube. The structure of these fortifications has all the characteristic features of similar objects on the limit.

In addition to the military installation, there are some foundations of buildings north of the Danube built in a Roman manner. They are objects the Romans built and used by themselves such as the trading post near Stupava (Slovakia) or related to German settlements. We can presume they were stately homes of the German aristocracy. We know of some buildings in Slovakia: Cífer-Pác, Bratislava-Dúbravka and Velký Kýr (formerly Milanovce). In the territory of Moravia, brick architecture is documented indirectly by the building material – bricks and roof tiles. Fractions of these materials have been found during archaeological researches in Staré Město near Uherské Hradiště, Mikulčice and Pohansko near Břeclav in the context of Great Moravian religious buildings. In Olomouc, it is in the place of expected religious buildings from the 10th or 11th century (Church of our Lady of the Snow, Theresian Armoury). The building material is expected to come from Roman objects not localised so far.

Iža (Slovensko). Kelemantia citadel reconstruction in the 2nd century

Bratislava-Důbravka. Plan of the researched German farmhouse with a ground plan of the brick building (spas) Bratislava-Důbravka. Brick building ground plan Bratislava-Důbravka. Brick building appearance reconstruction Stupava. Reconstruction of the first building phase of the Roman site Stupava. Reconstruction of the second building phase of the Roman site Stupava. Reconstruction of the third building phase of the Roman site. Fraction of roofing found during research in front of the Church of our Lady of the Snow in Olomouc Map of Roman camps Iža (Slovakia). Kelemantia citadel plan.